Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Live, not dead bacteria, augments human antibody response via TLR8 - T follicular helper cell axis

Immune system protects against pathogens. In natural settings, live pathogens cause diseases. So, it is very intuitive to think that immune system could have developed a specialized way to detect pathogen's "live signature". Few years back, Julie Magarian Blander's lab (former postdoctoral scientist in Ruslan Medzhitov' lab) published study showing that mRNA from live bacteria served as "live signature" they called vita-PAMP

Now, new paper in nature immunology from Leif Sander's lab (a former postdoctoral scientist in her lab and the first author of initial study) showed that in humans TLR8 may serve as a detector of vita-PAMP mRNA from live bacteria and augment antibody response. It is very nice study done primarily on ex vivo/in vitro human cells cultures (interestingly, Blander's lab also published this month new study about vita-PAMPs in mice in journal Immunity. But it is very messy and bloated study. Basically, in this case pupil outdid his [former] master).

Here the authors showed that live, replication-defective E. coli strain but not heat-inactivated dead one, could induce differentiation of human follicular helper T cells (TFH cells).

These TFH cells were functionally active inducing antibody-secreting plasmablast generation from B cells.

Live bacteria, not dead one, specifically induced IL-12p70 generation from human monocytes (unlike mouse, differentiation of human TFH cells requires IL-12p70).

Indeed, antibody blockade confirmed a major role of IL-12p70 in generation of IL-21-producing human TFH cells.

Stimulation of human monocytes with various TLR agonists showed that engagement of TLR8 (single-strand RNA sensor) with its agonist ligand (CL075 or R848) were responsible for vita-PAMP effect on IL-12p70 production.

Similar vita-PAMP effect of TLR8 signaling were seen for human IL-21-producing TFH cell generation.

In summary, this study indicates that unlike LPS-derivative MPLA or CpG fortified vaccines, inclusion of TLR8 agonists, such as CL075, could augment antibody responses. While study is well done we need to keep in mind that it is produced by members of the 'same initial' group (Blander and Sander) who first reported vita-PAMP effect. We don't have analogous studies from other labs who can independently confirm these observations

posted by David Usharauli


Tuesday, March 20, 2018

IL-33 is a natural target of allergen proteases

IL-33 is a member of IL-1 family and requires proteolytic cleavage to form active form. It has already been linked to allergy manifestation. Now, new study in nature immunology expands on earlier observations to show that full-length non-active IL-33 (IL-33FL) is a natural target of group of allergens with proteases activity.

In general, many known allergens display protease activity such as from fungi, mites, pollens, insects. Co-incubation of IL-33FL with such allergen proteases in presence of innate lymphoid cells type II (ILC2) generated biologically-active smaller fragments and release of type II cytokines.

IL-33FL is an intra-nuclear proto-chemokine found in epithelial and endothelial cells. So, how allergens get access to it? It requires cell damage to release IL-33FL extra-cellularly. However, it is not clear if any allergen proteases can damage cells. At least one such allergen from fungus, Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) can damage cell and then cleave IL-33FL.

Similar effects were seen in vivo using IL-33KO mice. In these mice, recruitment of eosinophils, a readout for IL-33-driven allergic response, were only observed when injected with pre-incubated IL-33FL and A. alternata mixture.

In summary, these results suggest that allergen from A. alternata with protease activity can damage cells to release IL-33FL and cleave it into biologically-active shorter peptides. However, this study did not show that other allergens can deliver similar double punch. Also, it is not clear how this innate mechanism translates to adaptive immune system to generate allergen-specific T cell and antibody responses.

posted by David Usharauli

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Reduced CTLA-4 signaling predisposes to Th2 driven gastric tumorigenesis

Anti-CTLA4 antibodies such as Yervoy, has been used in clinical practice to treat solid tumors. It supposed to work either by augmenting and revitalizing effector T cells function directly or indirectly through temporal silencing of inhibitory Foxp3+ Treg population or both. However, new study from Journal of Experimental Medicine showed that at least in [genetically predisposed] mice reduced CTLA-4 signaling by itself could cause Th2 driven tumorigenic transformation of stomach epithelial tissue.

For this study the authors created transgenic CTLA4 shRNA knockdown (CTLA4KD) mice on the BALB/c × C57BL/6 (B6) mixed genetic background. This they did because it appears that BALB/c but not B6 mice were susceptible developing gastric tumors in this model. CTLA4KD mice showed gastric epithelial transformation by 20w of age. Similarly, month long treatment of newborn BALB/c mice with anti-CTLA4 antibody also led to gastric epithelial transformation.

This tumorigenic transformation was CD4 T cell dependent and effector T cells from CTLA4KD but not from WT mice could mediate it. It indicated that changes in effector T cell composition and functionality were driving de novo inflammatory tumorigenesis.

Interestingly, gastric epithelial transformation were happening even in germ-free CTLA4KD mice lacking microbiota. However, since these mice also harbor increased numbers of inflammatory T cells, in all subsets analyzed such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and independent of microbiota it could indicate that T cells could be responding to antigens from food or environment.

Finally, elimination of canonical T helper cytokines showed that surprisingly neither IFN-γ nor IL-17 but IL-4 deficiency could abolish gastric epithelial transformation under conditions of reduced CTLA-4 activity.

In summary, this study suggests that inherited or clinically-induced reduction of CTLA-4 signaling in predisposed individuals could paradoxically lead to inflammatory tumorigenesis driven by type II immunity.

posted by David Usharauli